Citation & Reference Resources


Page Contents:

Citation Resources
Reference Resources


Bedford St. Martins   Well-organized, offers explanations and examples of many styles and every circumstance.

OWL  Student-oriented; links to other writing aids; covers fewer styles than Beford.


Tennessee Electronic Library (TEL). Many of these databases contain reference materials. For PASSWORD, ask instructor or librarian.  TEL Tutor.  

    Reference-oriented databases in TEL:

Gale Virtual Reference Library
General Reference Center Gold

Educators' Reference Complete
Health Reference Center Academic

    Multi-subject databases in TEL to search for reference materials:

Academic OneFile
Expanded Academic ASA
General OneFile

For subject-oriented databases in TEL, see the Course Resource (guide) for your course or program area.

Descriptions of Reference Work Types

Reference Work - A reference work is one consulted for specific information or data. It is not intended to be read cover-to-cover. Reference materials are rapidly shifting online. In fact, the entire Web might be considered a reference work in a very loose sense. And specific Web content is reducing the need for printed reference in many cases, especially with casual use of, for example, maps and dictionaries.

Caveat: The names of various types of reference works are often misapplied in titles. Take titles with a grain of salt. The content may not match the title; and a title may not use any of these terms. The most commonly confused are manuals and handbooks. A yearbook may be a directory published annually. In fact, the boundaries between a certain type and another may not ever be truly distinct. Perhaps these definitions should only be considered as attempts to make order out of chaos.

Almanac - A work that attempts to present a diverse variety of frequently needed information, all in one place. It is usually a one-volume work, if in print. Two well-known examples include the The World Almanac and book of Facts  and The Old Farmer's Almanac. Almanacs are sometimes updated annually. (See Yearbook below.)

Atlas - A collection of maps and related data on a particular subject. Well-known examples include atlases of the world and roadmap atlases. However, the topic does not have to pertain to physical geography.

Bibliography - Bibliographies are not only found at the back of books and articles. As a stand-alone publication, a bibliography catalogs or indexes the works of a particular author, or works on a given topic, generally with informative annotations. Related terms include: webliography, discography, etc.

Concordance - A specialized index which locates all instances of a given word within either a large work, such as the Bible, or within a body of work, such as the works of Shakespeare.

Dictionary - See the separate page on dictionaries.

Directory - An alphabetical listing of contact information. Some directories may contain additional types of information. Beyond the familiar telephone directory, a range of examples includes: Directory of Semiconductor Manufacturers, The Next Exit 2011: USA Interstate Exit Directory, The Best in Tent Camping: Tennessee....

Encyclopedia - See the separate page on encyclopedias.

Gazeteer - A work which lists alphabetically the names of places. In addition to names of cities, states, provinces, etc., it may also include names of natural features, such as lakes, rivers, mountains, etc.

Handbook - A work that contains a collection of significant and useful reference information pertaining to a given subject or profession.

Manual - A work that describes how to do something or use something, often step-by-step. For example, it may explain (a) how to use a piece of software (user's guide), (b) how to make a car repair, or (c) how to format a non-fiction article for publication (style guide). Examples: The Merck Manual of Medical Information, Modern Electronic Circuits Reference Manual.

Thesaurus - A work containing words of similar meaning, synonyms.

Travel Guide - A work dedicated to a particular geographic area, such as a country, city, or region. A travel guide attempts to contain all the kinds of information a visitor who is unfamiliar with the place will need. Key types of information include details about: (a) hotels, restaurants, sights, events, special foods and beverages, etc.; and (b) how things work in that place. Examples of the latter include: transportation; money; unusual laws, social rules, and customs; days and hours when museums and stores are open; and other advice.

Who's Who (Biographical Dictionary) - An alphabetical listing of persons with biographical information (a paragraph or a page). Who's Whos are generally limited to a specific population, such as: Who's Who of American Women, or Who's Who in Baseball.

Yearbook (Annual) - Any publication that is issued annually. The content is typically information that changes over time, hence, the need to republish annually. Examples: Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Yearbook of Nanotechnology in Society.


Suggestions for the content of this page are welcome.

Updated 01/09/2014       

Back to Top

Profile Information

Application afterLoad: 0.000 seconds, 0.40 MB
Application afterInitialise: 0.025 seconds, 3.34 MB
Application afterRoute: 0.037 seconds, 4.78 MB
Application afterDispatch: 0.076 seconds, 8.00 MB
Application afterRender: 0.233 seconds, 10.41 MB

Memory Usage


31 queries logged

  1. SELECT *
      FROM jos_session
      WHERE session_id = '1l1ije0nm6evu6uusrqfj22ie3'
      FROM jos_session
      WHERE ( TIME < '1508737347' )
  3. SELECT *
      FROM jos_session
      WHERE session_id = '1l1ije0nm6evu6uusrqfj22ie3'
  4. INSERT INTO `jos_session` ( `session_id`,`time`,`username`,`gid`,`guest`,`client_id` )
      VALUES ( '1l1ije0nm6evu6uusrqfj22ie3','1508797287','','0','1','0' )
  5. SELECT *
      FROM jos_components
      WHERE parent = 0
  6. SELECT folder AS TYPE, element AS name, params
      FROM jos_plugins
      WHERE published >= 1
      AND access <= 0
      ORDER BY ordering
  7. CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `jos_ualog` (
              `id` INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
              `user_id` INT(11) NOT NULL,
              `option` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
              `task` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
              `action_link` text NOT NULL,
              `action_title` text NOT NULL,
              `item_title` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
              `cdate` INT(11) NOT NULL,
              PRIMARY KEY  (`id`))
  8. SELECT *
      FROM jos_redj
      WHERE ( (('/resources/library/citation-a-reference' REGEXP BINARY fromurl)>0
      AND case_sensitive<>'0') OR (('/resources/library/citation-a-reference' REGEXP fromurl)>0
      AND case_sensitive='0') )
      AND published='1'
      ORDER BY ordering
  9. SELECT m.*, c.`option` AS component
      FROM jos_menu AS m
      LEFT JOIN jos_components AS c
      ON m.componentid =
      WHERE m.published = 1
      ORDER BY m.sublevel, m.parent, m.ordering
  10. SELECT id, parent_id, VALUE, name, lft, rgt
      FROM jos_core_acl_aro_groups
      WHERE id=23
      FROM jos_content
  12. SELECT template
      FROM jos_templates_menu
      WHERE client_id = 0
      AND (menuid = 0 OR menuid = 169)
      ORDER BY menuid DESC
      LIMIT 0, 1
  13. SELECT a.*, AS author, u.usertype, cc.title AS category, s.title AS SECTION, CASE WHEN CHAR_LENGTH(a.alias) THEN CONCAT_WS(":",, a.alias) ELSE END AS slug, CASE WHEN CHAR_LENGTH(cc.alias) THEN CONCAT_WS(":",, cc.alias) ELSE END AS catslug, AS groups, s.published AS sec_pub, cc.published AS cat_pub, s.access AS sec_access, cc.access AS cat_access  , ROUND( v.rating_sum / v.rating_count ) AS rating, v.rating_count
      FROM jos_content AS a
      LEFT JOIN jos_categories AS cc
      ON = a.catid
      LEFT JOIN jos_sections AS s
      ON = cc.SECTION
      AND s.scope = "content"
      LEFT JOIN jos_users AS u
      ON = a.created_by
      LEFT JOIN jos_groups AS g
      ON a.access =
      LEFT JOIN jos_content_rating AS v
      ON = v.content_id
      WHERE = 625
      AND (  ( a.created_by = 0 )    OR  ( a.state = 1
      AND ( a.publish_up = '0000-00-00 00:00:00' OR a.publish_up <= '2017-10-23 22:21:27' )
      AND ( a.publish_down = '0000-00-00 00:00:00' OR a.publish_down >= '2017-10-23 22:21:27' )   )    OR  ( a.state = -1 )  )
  14. UPDATE jos_content
      SET hits = ( hits + 1 )
      WHERE id='625'
  15. SELECT g.*
      FROM jos_core_acl_aro_groups AS g
      INNER JOIN jos_core_acl_groups_aro_map AS gm
      ON gm.group_id =
      INNER JOIN jos_core_acl_aro AS ao
      ON = gm.aro_id
      WHERE ao.VALUE='138'
      ORDER BY
  16. SELECT *
      FROM jos_tagmeta
      WHERE ( (('/resources/library/citation-a-reference' REGEXP BINARY uri)>0
      AND case_sensitive<>'0') OR (('/resources/library/citation-a-reference' REGEXP uri)>0
      AND case_sensitive='0') )
      AND published='1'
      ORDER BY ordering
  17. SELECT m.*, am.params AS adv_params
      FROM jos_modules AS m
      LEFT JOIN jos_advancedmodules AS am
      ON am.moduleid =
      WHERE m.published = 1
      AND m.access <= 0
      AND m.client_id = 0
      ORDER BY m.ordering,
  18. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 169
      LIMIT 1
  19. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 51
      LIMIT 1
  20. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 5
      LIMIT 1
  21. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 169
      LIMIT 1
  22. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 51
      LIMIT 1
  23. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 5
      LIMIT 1
  24. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 169
      LIMIT 1
  25. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 51
      LIMIT 1
  26. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 5
      LIMIT 1
  27. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 169
      LIMIT 1
  28. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 51
      LIMIT 1
  29. SELECT parent
      FROM jos_menu
      WHERE id = 5
      LIMIT 1
  30. SELECT a.*,  CASE WHEN CHAR_LENGTH(a.alias) THEN CONCAT_WS(":",, a.alias) ELSE END AS slug, CASE WHEN CHAR_LENGTH(cc.alias) THEN CONCAT_WS(":",, cc.alias) ELSE END AS catslug
      FROM jos_content AS a
      LEFT JOIN jos_content_frontpage AS f
      ON f.content_id =
      INNER JOIN jos_categories AS cc
      ON = a.catid
      INNER JOIN jos_sections AS s
      ON = a.sectionid
      WHERE a.state = 1
      AND ( a.publish_up = '0000-00-00 00:00:00' OR a.publish_up <= '2017-10-23 22:21:27' )
      AND ( a.publish_down = '0000-00-00 00:00:00' OR a.publish_down >= '2017-10-23 22:21:27' )
      AND > 0
      AND a.access <= 0
      AND cc.access <= 0
      AND s.access <= 0
      AND (
      AND f.content_id IS NULL  
      AND s.published = 1
      AND cc.published = 1
      ORDER BY a.created DESC
      LIMIT 0, 5
  31. SELECT config
      FROM jos_pi_aua_config
      WHERE id='aua'
      LIMIT 1

Language Files Loaded

Untranslated Strings Diagnostic


Untranslated Strings Designer